Stem cells are capable of self-replicating, or differentiating, into two or more different cell types.
Stem cells are found in the adipose tissue, bone marrow, cord blood, placenta and so on, and can be used to treat various diseases caused by cell damage, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, osteoarthritis, and fracture.
Accordingly, stem cells are also known as totipotent cells.
Self replicationSelf replication
A stem cell is capable of self-replication to produce cells with the same structure and functions as the original cell.
Stem cells are capable of differentiation from their undifferentiated form into human tissue cells, undergoing specialization of structure and functions as necessary.
Stem cells are capable of locating and moving to the relevant damaged site in the body by themselves, when administered intravenously.
TYPE OF STEMCELL
Types of stem cells
Stem cells are broadly classified into embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. There are several concerns related to safety and ethics of the use of embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells, on the other hand, can be obtained from the adipose tissue, placenta, bone marrow, and cord blood without any ethical issues. Adipose stem cells, derived from the adipose tissue, and placental stem cells obtained from the placenta at delivery, are particularly safe with high differentiation ability. Therefore, these can be utilized to improve the symptoms of various diseases caused by cell damage, such as diabetes, dementia, regressive arthritis, myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renal insufficiency, which are refractory to modern medicine. Adult stem cells include cord blood stem cells, placental stem cells, adipose stem cells, and bone marrow stem cells. Adipose stem cells, among others, are attracting particular attention as they are easy to collect in large amounts, and can be cultured and differentiated with ease.